The Intermediate State of the Dead in Christ

The body of the dead believer is no better than any dead person.  But it is the condition of the soul that sets apart the believer’s intermediate state – it is to be in the presence of the Savior that once defined his earthly life (Phl 1:21).

A recent death in our Church generated much lament.  The brother was so young, and so actively useful in our ministries.  What is more, he had no known precondition.  This event drove me to refresh the subject of the intermediate state of the righteous.  It is compelling to think of an answer to the condition of one who dies in Christ, but before the consummation at the Second Coming of Christ.

Other subjects attach to this issue which are beyond the purview of  this article.  One may logically ask about the constitution of man – as body and soul (spirit).  Or one’s view of heaven, and its counterpart of hell, may be evaluated.  But they can only be assumed at this point, subordinate to the main question, What happens to the believer at death before Jesus’ return in triumph?

No Soul-Sleep

A view held mostly by fringe cults is that the soul is in a state of unconscious sleep, awaiting the end at Christ’s coming or the Judgment Day.  This notion sounds plausible because there are, in both Old Testament and New Testament, references to dying as ‘sleeping.’  It only takes a step to make the conclusion that the reference is to the soul.

Its main error is the rush to conclusion that it can refer to nothing else but the soul.  But some key references to ‘sleep’ as descriptive of death should lead to a different deduction.  The connection is made in Matthew 27:52: “The tombs also were opened. And many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised.”  Here, those that are described as “fallen asleep” are explicitly “bodies of the saints.”  This is a difficult passage that does not now demand detailed exposition.  Suffice it to conclude that the figure of sleep for death is clearly that of the body.  Another reference is the death of Stephen with this conclusion: “And as they were stoning Stephen, he called out, ‘Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.’  And falling to his knees he cried out with a loud voice, ‘Lord, do not hold this sin against them.’ And when he had said this, he fell asleep.” (Acts 7:59-60 ESV).  It only needs pointing out that Stephen expected welcome by Jesus to his spirit as he was dying.  And when he died, it was described as, “he fell asleep.”  Clearly, the spirit of Stephen was received by Jesus, but his body fell asleep.

The simple reason for this figure of sleep as reference to the body is the counterpart of the resurrection as being raised (as in being awakened) from death (sleep).  This is Paul’s corrective to the misconstruction of the Thessalonians who thought that the dead in Christ had missed out on the blessing of the Second Coming.  On the contrary, they will even precede those who are alive: “since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep” (1 Thess. 4:14 ESV).

This error was so obvious that the young John Calvin wrote his first book in 1534 to refute soul-sleep.  Its title was Psychopannychia (Literally, “All-night-vigil of the soul”).  So obvious was the error that Calvin in his youth could easily demolish this notion.

No Death Wish

On the other end of the spectrum is the belief that such is the happy state of the soul of the righteous dead that their death should rather be celebrated than mourned.  This attitude is only a small step away to justifying death-wish.  But this is also wrong.

Death is not a good thing.  The biblical position is to regard death as the consequence of sin (Romans 5:12, 18; 6:23).  Adam, had he obeyed the test in the garden, was made to live in a confirmed eternal life.  But his sin has brought death – not only to him, but to all his posterity.  Therefore, death is considered an enemy – the last to be subdued at the end which is through the resurrection of the body (1Cor 15:26).

The believer’s death is still rightly to be mourned.  So the brethren, as they buried Stephen, “made great lamentation” (Acts 8:2).  One reason for this is that earthly fellowship with the dead is totally cut-off.  We may look forward to a reunion, and we do not mourn as those without hope (1Thes 4:13).  But we still rightly mourn.

That Paul asserts, “To die is gain” (Phl 1:21) is regularly misconstrued as a positive view of death for the believer.  But Paul does not say that death is gain.  But rather because of Christ, the event of dying (an evil in itself) can result for the believer something that can be counted as gain.  Note, however, that this is tempered by Paul’s assertion of desire (even preference) to live on and bear fruit of service (1:19, 24).

To look at death as itself desirable is inconsistent with the New Testament teaching about death.  Dying is not the blessed hope of the believer.  The Second Coming of Christ is (Titus 2;14).  There is still a rightful fear of death itself, but redemption should have delivered the believer from the bondage of this fear (Heb 2:14, 15; 2Cor 5:1ff).

“Far Better”

Paul does describe the state after-death of the believer as “far better” (Phl 1:23).  There is one reason that he consistently thrusts to prominence.  At the believer’s death, just like any dead person, his body begins to decay; but his soul/spirit is in the presence of Christ’s company.  His summary of the believer is “to depart and be with Christ” (Phl 1:23).  In another place, “absent from the body, but present with the Lord” (2Cor 5:8).  There can be no more explicit description of the believer’s condition beyond death.  The body of the dead believer is no better than any dead person.  But it is the condition of the soul that sets apart the believer’s intermediate state – it is to be in the presence of the Savior that once defined his earthly life (Phl 1:21).  Other passages corroborate this.  To cite just one more, Jesus promised the penitent thief on the cross, “Today, you shall be with me in paradise” (Luke 23:43).

It is right to describe the after-life of the righteous as “far better.”  It is so in comparison to this earthly life.  But in the redemptive plan of God, it is not yet the best.  Thus the souls in the intermediate state still express their longing for the day of consummation (Rev 6:10).  The best is yet to come.  And that is the reunion of body and soul at the resurrection.  This is now the Final State where the saints’ inheritance is not just heaven, but heaven and earth (2Pet 3:13).

Grieving and Solace

The foregoing thoughts will mean the mixture of grieving and solace when a beloved believer dies.  There will be pain from the poignant void left behind; but there will be anticipation for the reunion yet to come.  For as long as we have not crossed that dividing river of death, such will be the lot of brethren left behind on earth.  But make no mistake.  It is not the living to say goodnight to the dead in Christ.  It is those who have departed to be with Christ who must say goodnight to us who remain in this dark world of sin and death.

10 thoughts on “The Intermediate State of the Dead in Christ”

  1. Reblogged this on TheologyCheck and commented:
    It is right to describe the after-life of the righteous as “far better.” It is so in comparison to this earthly life. But in the redemptive plan of God, it is not yet the best. Thus the souls in the intermediate state still express their longing for the day of consummation (Rev 6:10). The best is yet to come. And that is the reunion of body and soul at the resurrection. This is now the Final State where the saints’ inheritance is not just heaven, but heaven and earth (2Pet 3:13).

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  2. Thanks for your thoughts on this subject. Just wondered about a couple of related questions and would appreciate your thoughts on what scripture tells us about them: (a) Is it correct to understand that upon death the believer’s soul is then conscious and aware and in the presence of Christ? Is this then the state of being in”heaven”?; (b) with respect to the death of an unbeliever, what can we infer happens to his soul at death? Is his soul consigned to “hell” at that point? and (c) from whence do the dead come from to stand at the white throne judgment referred to in Revelation 20:12? Do I understand correctly that ALL people will stand in that judgment, both those to whom God has granted salvation and those to whom he hasn’t? … Those who were God’s children, in the presence of Christ, awaiting that moment, as well as those unredeemed who were, well, …where?
    Sorry if I have not been clear in all this but I would appreciate your thoughts.

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    1. Thank you for your interest in my post. To answer your questions very briefly. (a) The righteous dead are no different from the unrighteous insofar as the body is concerned. The body decomposes at death. But what distinguishes the righteous dead is his soul existence in the presence of Christ. This leads Paul to describe it as “far better” (Phl 1:23). To cite just one corroborating text, 2Cor 5:8; (b) The state of the unrighteous dead is much more scarcely revealed in Scripture, even in the NT. Many references pertain to the final state of eternal punishment. They are often conflated with the intermediate state. This is wrong hermeneutics. All that we can say of the soul of the unrighteous dead is that it is awaiting the final judgment, but even now has a foretaste of its being cast out of the presence of God. (2Pet 2:9; Luk 16:19ff). and finally, (c) There will be a general resurrection of all the dead (Dan 12:2; John 5:28f) to face God in judgment. But that judgment is not to determine who is saved, and who is not. That question is to be settled in this life. The final judgment is evaluative to determine the degree of blessedness for the righteous, and the degree of punishment for the wicked. But in the final state, it will now be both body and soul for both righteous and wicked.

      Again, thank you for your interest.

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